Organic farmers employ natural farming techniques that harm neither humans nor the environment. Organic farming uses pesticides and fertilizers as long as it is considered to be natural, and it avoids using a variety of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Since synthetic fertilizers and pesticides are banned from use in organic agriculture, organic fertilizers are substituted for them (e.g.
Rather than importing chemical fertilizers from overseas, organic agriculture aims to enhance soils by rotating crops, using animal manure, compost, and natural byproducts. Organic farming limits chemical inputs, thereby greatly improving the quality of soil, increasing biodiversity. Organic farming, in principle, prevents the use of harmful chemicals, and thus, promotes preservation of the natural environment. Moreover, the sole reliance on organic methods for the production of crops also conserves nutrients which are otherwise lost due to a preference for quantity over quality in conventional agriculture.
Organic farming lowers the consumption of non-renewable energy resources, by reducing the need for agrochemicals (these need large amounts of fossil fuels for production). Organic farming typically produces less soil and water pollution, lowers GHG emissions, and is more energy-efficient. Organic farming practices can reduce pollution, conserve water, reduce soil erosion, improve soil fertility, and use less energy. Overall, organic farms generally have better soil quality and lower soil erosion than their conventional counterparts.
Practices of organic crop production enhance soil quality and texture, and reduce soil erosion. Soils with better structure and higher organic matter contents, as well as more compact growing organic crops, reduce the use of water in farming as well. Soil organic matter promotes a good soil structure and holding capacity. Soil is maintained by planting, and later tilling, cover crops, which help to protect the soil from erosion during off-seasons, as well as providing additional organic matter.
In addition, water management is monitored in the organic farm framework in order to minimise the loss of this resource, prevent soil erosion, and avoid contamination of groundwater. Organic methods make sure the soil is healthier and more beneficial, and that its carbon and nitrogen cycles are well balanced. Organic agriculture uses natural, biological methods for increasing the soils fertility, such as the microbial activities which enhance the plants nutritional content. Organic cropping is a system of agriculture using natural methods of pest and fertilization, including cover crops, crop rotation, and animal and plant waste.
A major attribute of organic agriculture is the acceptance of ecological agricultural practices in organic agriculture–producing food without harming ecology, environment, and natural resources. In addition to their benefits, organic farming is affecting conventional production as well, introducing bio-pesticides, etc. In the context of climate change, organic farming offers attractive solutions which may contribute to reduced energy use (manufacturing synthetic fertilizers requires large amounts of energy), reduced greenhouse gases, and the retention of CO2 in soil. The organic approach, with maximum possible nutrient recycling, and no use of chemical fertilisers, reduces the loss of nutrients, an immense issue in many countries, as well as a threat to drinking water, lakes, rivers, and seas.